Today is Saturday; 11th of the Iranian month of Mordad 1399 solar hijri; corresponding to 11th of the Islamic month of Zil-Hijjah 1441 lunar hijri; and August 1, 2020, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.
2050 solar years ago, on this day in 30 BC, Roman general Octavian (later Emperor Augustus Caesar), entered Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under control of the Roman Republic, after defeating his rival Marcus Antonius, who committed suicide.
2050 solar years ago, on this day in 30 BC, Roman general and politician, Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) committed suicide in Egypt at the age of 53 on being defeated by his former friend and now rival Octavian (Augustus Caesar). Antony was a confidante and military commander in the conquest of Gaul (France) of the famous Roman dictator, Julius Caesar, on whose assassination in 44 BC, he formed a triumvirate with Marcus Lepidus and Octavian (Caesar’s maternal grandnephew and adopted son) to defeat the assassins – who were supported by the Parthian Empire of Iran.
1493 solar years ago, on this day in 527 AD, Justin I became the sole ruler of the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire.
1416 lunar years ago, on this day in 25 AH, the famous Dua Sabah or the Morning Supplication to God Almighty, which is a treasure-trove of spiritual, philosophical, theological and related values, was written by the Commander of the Faithful, Prophet Mohammad’s (SAWA) divinely-designated Heir, Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (AS). According to a narration in Allamah Majlisi’s encyclopedic work "Behar al-Anwaar”, a leather scroll written in Kufic style of calligraphy bearing the signet of Imam Ali (AS). Over the centuries several commentaries have been written on this Supplication and the mysteries of monotheism it contains.
1234 lunar years ago, on this day in 207 AH, the well-known Muslim historian and narrator of hadith, Abu Abdullah Waqedi, died in Baghdad. It is said that he copied the works of Ibrahim bin Mohammad bin Abi Yahya, a disciple of the Prophet’s 6th Infallible Heir, Imam Ja’far as-Sadeq (AS), by attributing them to himself. Among his works is the book titled "al-Maghazi” on the campaigns of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). He is the author of another renowned work, "Akhbar al-Makkah” or the History of Mecca.
1118 solar years ago, on this day in 902 AD, Taormina, the last Byzantine stronghold on the island of Sicily off the coast of Italy, surrendered to Muslims led by the Aghlabids, the Abbasid governors of the Province of Ifriqiyya, whose forces had already established themselves in Sicily since 827. The first Muslims to arrive in Sicily were Syrians, way back in 652.
1074 solar years ago, on this day in 946 AD, Ali Ibn Isa Ibn Da’ud al-Jarrah, the famous Iranian vizier of the Abbasid dynasty, died at the age of 87. Descended from a family with long history of service at the Abbasid court, he served as vizier from 913-to-917, 918-to-923, and 927-to-928.
372 solar years ago, on this day in 1648 AD, the independence of Switzerland was recognized by the Treaty of Westphalia following the end of the 30-Year War in Europe. Landlocked Switzerland covers an area of 41293 sq km and is situated in Central Europe. It shares borders with Germany, Italy, Austria, and Liechtenstein.
356 solar years ago, on this day in 1664 AD, Ottoman forces were defeated in the battle of Saint Gotthard in what is now western Hungary by an army of Austrian and allied forces, resulting in the Peace of Vasvar that lasted for almost 20 years until the Second Siege of Vienna by the Turks in 1683.
276 solar years ago, on this day in 1744 AD, French biologist and naturalist, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, was born. He catapulted to fame with his book on plants of France titled "Flore Francaise”. His next book was a scientific lexicon. He conducted research on live invertebrates and fossils, and wrote the book, titled: "Zoological Philosophy: Exposition with Regard to the Natural History of Animals”. He died in 1829.
201 solar years ago, on this day in 1819 AD, Herman Melville, US novelist, short story writer, and poet, was born in New York. His best known work is his whaling novel "Moby-Dick” (1851), in which he drew his own experiences as a sailor.
126 solar years ago, on this day in 1894 AD, the First Sino-Japanese War erupted between Japan and China over Korea.
111 solar years ago, on this day in 1909 AD, Ayatollah Shaikh Fazlollah Noori was martyred in Tehran through hanging by agents of colonial powers. He strove to promote justice in society, playing a leading role in the Constitutional Movement against the despotism of the Qajarid kings. After formation of the first national parliament and drafting of the Constitution, he voiced his protest to some of its clauses which were contrary to Islam. He staged a sit-in at the shrine of Hazrat Abdul-Azim al-Hassani in Rayy, south of Tehran, along with other leading activists, ending the protest when parliament promised not to contradict the shar’ia. Colonial agents plotted against him and martyred him on trumped up charges.
106 solar years ago, on this day in 1914 AD, with Germany’s declaration of war against Russia, World War I broke out.
97 lunar years ago, on this day in 1344 AH, the great Gnostic, Ayatollah Mirza Jawad Maliki Tabriz, passed away. His works include "al-Muraqabaat”, "Asraar as-Salaat” and "Risalay-e Liqaollah”.
86 lunar years ago, on this day in 1355 AH, prominent Islamic scholar of India, Seyyed Abu’l-Hassan Ali, titled Mumtaz ul-Ulema, passed away in his hometown Lucknow. Son of the scholar Seyyed Ibrahim Shams ul-Ulema, for higher studies he went to holy Najaf in Iraq, where his teachers were such leading scholars as Ayatollah Seyyed Kazem Yazdi, Akhund Mullah Mohammad Kazem Khorasani, Sheikh Zain ol-Abedini Mazandarani, and Ziya od-Din Iraqi. On his return to India he spent his time in teaching, and writing books, such as "Ithbat an-Nubuwwa” on Prophethood.
60 solar years ago, on this day in 1960 AD, Benin in West Africa declared its independence from French colonial rule that had started in 1892. Called Dahomey by the French, Benin has a coastline on the Atlantic Ocean and covers an area of over 112,000 sq km, sharing borders with Nigeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, and Togo.
60 solar years ago, on this day in 1960 AD, newly built Islamabad was declared capital of Pakistan, replacing nearby Rawalpindi. Following partition of the Subcontinent, the port city of Karachi had initially served as capital.
32 solar years ago, on this day in 1988 AD, the UN fact-finding team to Iran and Iraq, published two reports, announcing that the repressive Ba’th minority regime of Saddam had used chemical weapons against Iran several times during the 8-year US-imposed war. This was the first admission of the UN about the wide-scale use of chemical weapons by the Iraqi army against Iran. Nonetheless, the UN Security Council did not issue any resolution against Saddam’s use of internationally banned chemical weapons against Iran. During the imposed war, Saddam frequently attacked both Iranian combatants and civilians with toxic weapons, but the West which had equipped him with these illegal arsenal, turned a blind eye to his crimes against humanity. For this reason, hours after release of reports by the UN probe team, Iraqi jetfighters chemically bombarded the western Iranian city of Oshnavieh, injuring 2,400 civilians. The UN fact-finding team also confirmed the occurrence of the Iraqi attack that took place after acceptance of ceasefire by Iran.
30 solar years ago, on this day in 1990 AD, prominent Iranian musician, Morteza Nay-Davoud, died at the age of 90. A student of Gholam-Hussein Darvish, in addition to cooperation with the national radio network, he founded a school of music, and groomed students.
13 solar years ago, on this day in 1427 AH, Ayatollah Mirza Jawad Tabrizi passed away at the age of 82 in Qom and was laid to rest in the holy mausoleum of Hazrat Ma’souma (SA). He wrote several including "Irshad at-Taleb”, "Tabaqaat ar-Rejaal” (Biography of Narrators) and the 6-volume "Siraat an-Najaat” (Path of Salvation).