Today is Thursday; 20th of the Iranian month of Shahrivar 1399 solar hijri; corresponding to 21th of the Islamic month of Muharram 1442 lunar hijri; and September 10, 2020, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.
2230 solar years ago, on this day in 210 BC, the first emperor of China Qin Shi Huang, died at the age of 50 after drinking mercury in quest of the elixir of life and immortality.
1012 lunar years ago, on this day in 430 AH, the Iranian Shafei hadith scholar and historian, Ahmad Ibn Abdullah, known as Hafez Abu Nu’aym al-Isfahani, passed away in his hometown Isfahan. He authored scores of books and treatises including "Dala’el an-Nubuwwa” (Proofs of Prophethood), "The History of Isfahan”, and the 10-volume work "Hilyat al-Awliya”, which is a biography of 650 pious figures, including six of the 12 Infallible Imams of the Prophet’s Household. Abu Nu’aym Isfahani was the ancestor of the famous Imami scholar, Allamah Majlisi, who says his forbear was a devout follower of Prophet Mohammad’s (SAWA) Ahl al-Bayt and because of the repressive atmosphere of the times, he lived in a state of dissimulation (taqiyya).
849 solar years ago, on this day in 1171 AD, Kurdish adventurer Salah od-Din Ayyoubi, following his rather strange appointment as vizier of the Fatemid Ismaili Shi’ite Muslim Dynasty of Egypt, Hijaz, and parts of Libya, treacherously betrayed his benefactors by abolishing the 262-year rule of the Ismaili caliphate with the declaration of the khutba in Cairo in the name of al-Mustadi, the 33rd Abbasid caliph of Baghdad.
716 lunar years ago, on this day in 726 AH, the renowned theologian Hassan Ibn Yousuf Ibn Ali Ibn Mutahhar al-Hilli, passed away at the age of 78 in his hometown Hilla and was laid to rest in Najaf in the holy mausoleum of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (AS). Allamah Hilli’s works include at least a hundred books and treatises on various subjects such as jurisprudence, theology, logic, philosophy, hadith, exegesis of the holy Qur’an and Rijal or evaluation of hadith narrators. Each book of this great mujtahid is enough to portray his precocity and genius. Among his works are "Ma’arej al-Fahm”, "Qawa’ed al-Ahkaam”, "Tadhkirat ul-Fuqaha” and "Tabsirat ul-Mutallimeen”, the last being studied by seminary students till this day. He also wrote on proofs from the holy Qur’an, the hadith, and the intellect, on the right to caliphate of Imam Ali (AS) after the passing away of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). This famous book is titled "Nahj al-Haq wa Kashf as-Sidq”. Allama Hilli was succeeded by his worthy son, Mohammad, who is acclaimed as "Fakhr alMuhaqqiqeen” (Pride of Researchers).
671 solar years ago, on this day in 1349 AD, Jews who had survived the massacre in Strasbourg, Germany, earlier in this year, were burned to death by Christians in the Germany city of Constance. In Strasbourg on February 14, over a thousand Jews were publicly burned to death by Christian mobs while the survivors driven away from the city as part of the pogroms the Church used to frequently conduct against the followers of Judaism in Europe, at a time when Jews living in Islamic lands enjoyed all the freedom and privileges of Muslims, even rising to post of ministers.
511 solar years ago, on this day in 1509 AD, an earthquake known as "Qiyamat-e Kuchak” (The Lesser Judgment Day) hit Istanbul at about 10 pm. Its epicenter was the Sea of Marmara and it had an estimated magnitude of 7.2 on the surface wave magnitude scale. Forty-five days of aftershocks followed the earthquake, as well as a tsunami. Over 10,000 people died.
440 lunar years ago, on this day in 1002 AH, ambassadors of the sultanates of the Deccan (southern India) conveyed the refusal of the Nizamshahi, Adelshahi and Qotbshahi sultans to acknowledge Jalal od-Din Akbar Shah, the Mughal Emperor of Hindustan (northern subcontinent), as their overlord. Akbar was furious and sent armies to attack them, but did not succeed in subjugating the three Persianate sultanates which followed the creed of the Prophet’s Ahl al-Bayt, and considered the Safavid emperor of Iran as their overlord, reciting his name in the Friday sermons in their respective capitals – Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golkandah-Haiderabad.
197 solar years ago, on this day in 1823 AD, the famous South American revolutionary leader, Simon Bolivar, was named President of Peru.
165 solar years ago, on this day in 1855 AH, Robert Koldewey, the German archaeologist who discovered the Hanging Gardens of Babylon (in modern Iraq), thus confirming its historical existence and it was not just a legend, was born in Blankenburg, Brunswick.
101 solar years ago, on this day in 1919 AD, Britain, France and the victorious Allied forces of World War 1 imposed the Treaty of Saint-Germain on the defeated Austro-Hungarian Empire, recreating Poland and Hungary after several centuries, and setting up the new multi-ethnic countries of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia – both of which disintegrated in the 1990s. Italy, the Soviet Union and Romania also gained some territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
72 solar years ago, on this day in 1948 AD, Prominent Chinese historian, Zhang Chengzhi, who is China’s most influential contemporary Muslim writer, was born in Beijing to Hui ethnic parents.
66 solar years ago, on this day in 1954 AD, a major earthquake jolted southwestern Algeria, near Orleansville. The city was destroyed and 10,000 people lost their life. Tens of thousands of Algerians became homeless and a heavy blow was dealt to the national economy.
46 solar years ago, on this day in 1974 AD, Guinea-Bissau in West Africa gained independence from Portugal after over a century-and-a-half of colonial rule.
43 solar years ago, on this day in 1977 AD, Tunisian Hamida Jandoubi, convicted of torture and murder, was the last person to be executed by guillotine in France.
39 solar years ago, on this day in 1981 AD, the prominent scholar, Ayatollah Seyyed Asadollah Madani, was martyred by MKO terrorists in the northwestern Iranian city of Tabriz, while leading the Friday Prayer at the age of 67. He completed his studies at the Qom and Najaf Seminaries, and attained the status of Ijtehad. He was active in the struggle against the despotic British-installed and US-backed Pahlavi regime, revealing the evil nature of the Shah during the 15th Khordad Uprising of June 4, 1963. As a result, he suffered imprisonment and banishment to remote areas of the country. Following the victory of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, he was appointed Friday Prayer Leader of Tabriz by the Founder of Islamic Republic of Iran, Imam Khomeini (RA).
26 solar years ago, on this day in 1994 AD, Iranian researcher and Qur’anic scholar, Dr. Mohammad Ramyar, passed away. Among his books, mention can be made of "History of Qur’an”, and "Kashf al-Mataleb”.
16 solar years ago, on this day in 2004 AD, prominent Yemeni religious and political leader, Seyyed Hussain Badr od-Din al-Howthi at-Tabatabaie, was martyred at the age of 48 in the Marran District, Saada Governorate, along with twenty of his companions by the Yemeni army. Son of the prominent Zaydi Shi’a Muslim religious scholar, Seyyed Badr od-Din, he founded the group "Shabab al-Momineen” (Believing Youth) in 1990 to teach youngsters about Shi’a Muslim beliefs and their history. Today, this group is the core of the "Ansarullah Movement” that is defending Yemen in the face of the US-supported state terrorism of Saudi Arabia and its accomplices in the Persian Gulf Sheikhdoms. From 1993 to 1997, Seyyed Hussain al-Howthi represented the al-Haqq Islamic party in the Yemeni parliament. He later left for Syria and then Iran, along with his father and Abd ul-Malik (present leader of Ansarullah), to study in the seminary of holy Qom. He and his group became profoundly influenced by the Leader of the Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei, and by Seyyed Hassan Nasrollah, the Leader of Lebanon’s legendry anti-terrorist movement, the Hezbollah. His body was secretly buried by the government, and years later was retrieved by the Ansarullah and reburied in Saada on 5 June 2013, in a ceremony attended by tens of thousands of Yemenis.
7 solar years ago, on this day in 2013 AD, Iran’s Islamic scholar Abdul-Mohammad Ayati, mostly known for his translations of the Holy Qur’an and the Nahj-ul-Balagha, passed away in Tehran at the age of 87. Born in Boroujerd, he was attached to Islamic issues since high school, and in 1946 came to the capital and started studying philosophy at Tehran University. He later began a teaching career that continued for over 30 years. He was a member of the Iranian Academy of Persian Language and Literature. He wrote many books and articles on Persian literature and philosophy.