Today is Tuesday; 30th of the Iranian month of Dey 1399 solar hijri; corresponding to 5th of the Islamic month of Jamadi as-Sani 1442 lunar hijri; and January 19, 2021, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.
1379 solar years ago, on this day in 642 AD, Muslims decisively defeated forces of the 29th and last Sassanid monarch of the Persian Empire, Yazdegerd III, near the western Iranian city of Nahavand, in the crucial battle called "Fath al-Fotouh” (Victory of Victories), since it ended the 416-year Sassanid rule over what is now Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, the Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia, Chechen and Daghestan), and parts of Central Asia and modern Turkey.
1038 lunar years ago, on this day in 404 AH, Baha od-Dowla Daylami, the Iranian Buwaiyhid ruler of Iraq and parts of Iran and Oman, died in Arrajan near Behbahan in southwestern Iran after a reign of 24 years and was succeeded by his son Sultan od-Dowla. He was the third son of the greatest ruler of the dynasty, Adhud od-Dowla, and assumed power on the death of his eldest brother, Sharaf od-Dowla.
1014 lunar years ago, on this day in 428 AH, the poet and scholar, Abu’l-Hassan Mahyar Daylami Ibn Marzawaiyh, passed away. A descendant of the pre-Islamic Sassanid Emperor, Anoushirvan, he was born as a Zoroastrian, who under the guidance of the great scholar, Seyyed Razi, embraced the truth of Islam. Mahyar Daylami avidly learned religious sciences and techniques of poetry under Seyyed Razi, the compiler of the famous book "Nahj al-Balagha” – the collection of the sermons, letters, and aphorisms of Imam Ali (AS). He soon became a prominent Arabic poet. He looked at the world through the prism of an ascetic and in his poetry he has expressed gratitude to the Ahl al-Bayt of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), for guiding him towards Islam. He also expresses devotion to Imam Ali (AS) for transforming the sensibilities of the Iranian people. He has lamented the martyrdom of Imam Husain (AS) and castigated the enemies of the Ahl al-Bayt. Among his books, mention could be made of a 4-volume Diwan.
795 lunar years ago, on this day in 647 AH, the prominent religious scholar and poet, Taqi od-Din Ḥassan bin Ali bin Dawoud al-Hilli was born in the city of Hilla in Iraq. Among his poetical works is "Manhaj al-Qawim fi Taslim at-Taqdim”, which narrates in verse the debates in Baghdad among scholars of different sects concerning the most competent caliph after Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). Ibn Dawoud was known as "Sultan al-Ulama wa’l-Bulagha” (King of Scholars and Orators) as well as "Taj al-Muhaddithin wa’l-Fuqaha” (Crown of Scholars of Hadiths and Jurisprudence).
770 lunar years ago, on this day in 672 AH, the renowned Persian mystical poet, Mowlana Jalal od-Din Mohammad Balkhi, known as Mowlavi and Roumi, passed away at the age of 67 in Konya, in what is now Turkey. From an accomplished teacher and jurist, he was transformed into an ascetic. He started a spiritual purification and created his eternal works, the masterpiece of Persian mystical poetry, known "Mathnawi Ma’nawi”, which contains over 150,000 rhymed verses. He also compiled his spiritual teacher’s poems in what is known as Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi that contains some 35,000 Persian couplets and 2000 quatrains.
499 solar years ago, on this day in 1522 AD, the island of Rhodes in the Aegean Sea surrendered to the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman after a siege of several months, and the surviving Knights Hospitalers were allowed to leave. They eventually settled on Malta and became known as the Knights of Malta. The Turks found and released thousands of Muslim prisoners on Rhodes who were enslaved and forced to work in the building and defence of the almost impregnable fortress.
456 lunar years ago, on this day in 986 AH, the Ottoman Turks seized from Safavid Iran, Tiflis or modern Tbilisi, which is the capital of the present day republic of Georgia in the Caucasus, following the death of the long peaceful reign of Shah Tahmasp I. Several years later, Iran under Shah Abbas the Great, succeeded in liberating most of Georgia by defeating the Ottomans.
299 solar years ago, on this day in 1722 AD, Kangxi, the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty of China, died at the age of 68. His 61-year reign makes him the longest-reigning emperor in Chinese history and one of the world’s longest-reigning rulers.
218 solar years ago, on this day in 1803 AD, the Louisiana Purchase was completed as the vast territory, acquired by the French from the Spanish just 20 days ago, was formally transferred from France to the United States during ceremonies in New Orleans. This effectively doubled the size of the existing US.
181 lunar years ago, on this day in 1261 AH, French forces burned to death the Algerian Muslim tribe of Awlad Rabah along with their animals.
101 solar years ago, on this day in 1920 AD, the jurisprudent and Source of Emulation, Mullah Fathollah bin Mohammad Namazi Gharavi, known as Shaikh osh-Shari’ah Isfahani, passed away at the age of 71 in Najaf, Iraq, and was laid to rest in the courtyard of the holy shrine of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (AS).
86 solar years ago, on this day in 1935 AD, the Muslim revolutionary, Sheikh Mohammad Izz od-Din al-Qassaam, attained martyrdom near Haifa in Palestine at the age of 53. The manner of his last stand assumed legendary proportions in Palestinian and other Arab circles as the symbol of resistance. The al-Qassaam Brigades of the Palestinian Islamic Resistance were named after him for the struggle to liberate their homeland from the Zionist usurpers.
70 solar years ago, on this day in 1951 AD, Oman gained independence from British rule. Oman used to be a part of various Persian Empires, both before and after the advent of Islam.
53 solar years ago, on this day in 1968 AD, US novelist, John Steinbeck, died at the age of 66. The bitter incidents of his life cover his novels, which depict the hardships of the underprivileged strata of US society. His famous novel is "Grapes of Wrath”.
42 solar years ago, on this day in 1979 AD, news of the imminent return home of the Father of the Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini (RA), were greeted with rejoicings by the Iranian nation. The news created panic among the Shah’s agents, many of whom fled the country in view of their criminal record. In desperation, the Shah’s Prime Minister, Shapour Bakhtiyar, ordered his troops to attack defenseless people, in a bid to maintain in power the British-installed and US-supported Pahlavi regime. However, such actions failed to break the resolve of the Iranian people and made them more determined to continue their struggle till final victory.
38 solar years ago, on this day in 1983 AD, Donald Rumsfeld, who was later to acquire lasting notoriety as US War minister, and was one of the architects of the American invasion and occupation of Iraq, visited Saddam in Baghdad to prepare the ground for supply of satellite photos of Iranian troop deployments on the fronts of the imposed war, and finalize shipment of a variety of US war materials.
26 solar years ago, on this day in 1995 AD, Interim Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Mahdi Bazargan, passed away at the age of 87 in his hometown Tehran.
22 solar years ago, on this day in 1999 AD, Macao reverted to Chinese control after over four centuries of occupation by Portugal, which had rented it in 1557 from the Ming Dynasty of China, and went on to occupy it in 1887.
17 solar years ago, on this day in 2004 AD, remnants of Iraq’s repressive Ba’th minority regime, in alliance with US occupation forces, carried out car bomb blasts in the holy cities of Najaf and Karbala, resulting in the martyrdom of 67 people and wounding more than 120.