Today is Monday; 29th of the Iranian month of Dey 1399 solar hijri; corresponding to 4th of the Islamic month of Jamadi as-Sani 1442 lunar hijri; and January 18, 2021, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.
1795 solar years ago, on this day in 226 AD, following the death of the last king of kings (Shahanshah) of the Parthian Empire, Ardavan V – called Artabanus by the Romans – the dynasty collapsed after 473 years of rule over Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, parts of Anatolia (modern Turkey), the Caucasus, and parts of Central Asia. He was killed in the uprising of Ardeshir Babakan of Fars, the founder of the Sassanid dynasty, which retained the Parthian capital Cteisphon or Madaen (near modern Baghdad) in Iraq, as its own capital for the next four centuries, until it was captured by Muslims. The Parthians, who came to power after defeating the Greek Seleucid successors of Alexander, were ethnic Iranians from the northeast, and revived Iranian culture.
1212 lunar years ago, on this day in 230 AH, the renowned Iraqi hadith scholar and historian, Mohammad Ibn Sa’d Ibn Mani al-Baghdadi, passed away. He was a student of the celebrated historian, Mohammad bin Omar al-Waqedi. Ibn Sa’d is famous for his voluminous book "at-Tabaqaat al-Kubra”, which is a biography of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), the early Muslims, and the subsequent scholars and elites. Among his other books, mention could be made of "Akhbar an-Nabi”, and "Horouf al-Qur’an”.
1025 solar years ago, on this day in 896 AD, Khomarawayh bin Ahmad Tuloun, the rich and powerful ruler of Egypt and Syria, was murdered by his servant at the age of 32. Born in Samarra, Iraq, to Ahmad bin Toloun, a Persianized Turkic slave-soldier of the Abbasid caliphate who on becoming governor of Egypt made it independent from Baghdad, he squandered the wealth of the Tulounid Dynasty during his 12-year rule, thereby contributing to its eventual collapse in less than ten years after his death. He build numerous palaces for himself and his favourites, besides engaging in displays of extravagance, such as a quicksilver-filled basin in which he was rocked to sleep on top of air-filled cushions, or the million-dinar dowry of his daughter – considered the most sumptuous wedding gift in medieval Muslim history, accompanied by lavish marriage ceremonies which remained the stuff of folk legends in Egypt for six centuries until well into the Ottoman period.
557 lunar years ago, on this day in 885 AH, Ottoman Sultan Mohammed al-Fateh, the conqueror of Constantinople which he named Islambol (today’s Istanbul in Turkey), succeeded in taking the Italian town of Otranto, as a launching point for his goal of conquering Rome. The pope and the entire Catholic Church fled in panic to the safety of remote mountainous villages. But the Sultan died before that within a year on 4th Rabi al-Awwal 886 AH.
332 solar years ago, on this day in 1689 AD, the French philosopher, Charles de Montesquieu, was born. His views highly influenced the French Revolution and he was the first European to present the theory of separation of the three branches of government.
106 solar years ago, on this day in 1915 AD, a secret pact was signed by France, Britain, and Russia during World War I against the Ottoman Empire, following its joining of the Axis powers, namely the German and the Austro-Hungarian Empires. To weaken the Turks, the Allied Powers attacked the Dardanelles Strait, which links the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
102 solar years ago, on this day in 1919 AD, the Paris Conference opened at the Versailles Palace attended by representatives of 27 countries, after the end of World War I. The defeated Axis powers were further humiliated at the conference, with Germany forced to pay huge compensation, while the Arab territories of the Ottoman Empire were occupied by Britain and France.
85 solar years ago, on this day in 1936 AD, Rudyard Kipling, English author, and Nobel Prize laureate died in London at the age of 71. Born in Bombay, he travelled widely over the English-speaking world, and is chiefly remembered for his tales and poems of British soldiers in India, as well as his tales for children, such as "Jungle Book”, and "Kim”. He was an unabashed supporter of British imperialism.
67 lunar years ago, on this day in 1375 AH, the famous Iranian combatant religious leader, Seyyed Mojtaba Mir-Lowhi, known popularly as Hojjat al-Islam Nawab Safavi, was martyred at the young age of 32 years by a firing squad of the Shah’s despotic regime, along with three other revolutionaries, after a summary trial, following arrest on 22 November for Islamic activities. He had a striking personality and was a mesmerizing orator.
66 solar years ago, on this day in 1955 AD, the famous Urdu novelist, Sa’adat Hassan Manto, passed away in Lahore, Pakistan, at the age of 43. He is best known for his short stories, such as ‘Bu’ (Odour), "Khol Do” (Open It), "Thanda Gosht” (Cold Meat), and his magnum opus, "Toba Tek Singh”.
45 solar years ago, on this day in 1976 AD, Lebanese Christian militias overran the Karantina sector of Beirut, and massacred at least 1,000 Muslims.
43 solar years ago, on this day in 1978 AD, scholar, critic, writer, and linguist of Urdu, Mohammad Hassan Askari, passed away in Karachi, at the age of 59. He translated western literary, philosophical and metaphysical work into Urdu, especially from English, French, and Russian. He also translated Arabic mystical literature and Buddhism into Urdu. He introduced to Indian and Pakistani Muslims the works of western metaphysical scholars such as René Guénon Abdul-Wahid Yahya of France, the Swiss-German Islamist Frithjof Schuon and the British Martin Lings Siraj od-Din.
42 solar years ago, on this day in 1979 AD, the Iranian people through their trust in God and their solidarity staged a huge demonstration against the remnants of the Shah’s despotic regime. The protesters demanded the ouster of Prime Minister Shahpour Bakhtiyar and establishment of the Islamic system of government.
33 solar years ago, on this day in 1988 AD, renowned Iranian musician and physicist Mahdi Barkeshli, passed away at the age of 75 in his hometown Tehran. On the basis of his expertise as a physicist, he wrote several articles on music in Persian, French and English. Barkeshli also translated into Persian from Arabic Farabi’s famous book "Kitab al-Mosiqi al-Kabeer”, and wrote the valuable work "Development of Musical Instruments in Iran”.
14 solar years ago, on this day in 2007 AD, over 60 people were martyred and more than a hundred others wounded when Takfiri terrorists on the payroll of the US and Saudi Arabia detonated 3 car bombs through remote control within minutes of each other in front of a wholesale vegetable market near a Shi’ite Muslim enclave on the edge the predominantly Sunni neighborhood of Dora in southern Baghdad.
12 solar years ago, on this day in 2009 AD, the illegal Zionist entity, Israel, was forced to halt its 22-day holocaust on the besieged Palestinian people of the Gaza Strip, after failing to overthrow the elected Hamas-led government. Over 1,400 Muslim men, women, and children, were martyred and almost 5,500 others injured in this 22-day holocaust, which inflicted 2-billion dollars damage on the infrastructure.
9 solar years ago, on this day in 2012 AD, the repressive Aal-e Khalifa minority regime of Bahrain intensified its oppression of peaceful protesters of the long oppressed Shi’a Muslim majority in the capital Manama. The Persian Gulf island state is in the state of a popular uprising that is being brutally suppressed by the regime with help from the US, Britain, and the Saudi regime.
7 solar years ago, on this day in 2014 AD, in Sana’a, the capital of Yemen Iran’s economic attaché Ali Asghar Asadi, was martyred in a drive-by shooting by US-Saudi supported terrorists.