Today is Saturday; 15th of the Iranian month of Azar 1399 solar hijri; corresponding to 19th of the Islamic month of Rabi as-Sani 1442 lunar hijri; and December 5, 2020, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.
779 lunar years ago, on this day in 663 AH, the prominent philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician, Atheer od‐Din al‐Mufadhal Samarqandi al‐Abhari, also known as al‐Munajjim or the Astronomer, passed away in Shabestar, in northwestern Iran. His works on astronomy are titled "Risala fī’l-Hayya” and "Kashf al Haqa’eq fī Tahrir ad‐Daqa’eq”, where he accepts the view that the celestial bodies do not change and maintains that stars have volition and it is the source of their motion.
612 solar years ago, on this day in 1408 AD, the Muslim ruler, Amir Edigu of the Golden Horde reached Moscow and besieged it after capturing several Russian cities. Part of Moscow was burned and the siege was lifted on resumption of the annual tribute to the Tatars by the Russians, who had withheld it for several decades. Two years later Edigu was dethroned in the Golden Horde and had to seek refuge in Khwarezm. Shah Rukh, the son and successor of the fearsome Turkic conqueror, Amir Timur, expelled him back to Sarai, where he was assassinated by one of Tokhtamysh’s sons in 1419. Edigu’s dynasty in the Nogai Horde continued for about two centuries.
564 solar years ago, on this day in 1456 AD, a devastating earthquake struck Naples, Italy, resulting in the death of around 40,000 people.
451 lunar years ago, on this day in 991 AH, the Safavid dynasty of Iran suffered a setback with the loss of a key battle in the Caucasus against the Ottoman Turks at Mashalat Lir for control of Sherwan, which is presently in the Republic of Azerbaijan. The Iranians later liberated these lands.
350 solar years ago, on this day in 1670 AD, Sultan Abdullah Qotb Shah of the Iranian origin kingdom of Golkandah-Haiderabad in the Deccan (southern India), issued a farmaan to the Iranian Armenian merchant from Isfahan, Marcara Avanchintz, permitting the French to trade and build a factory in the port-city Machli Bandar on the coast of the Bay of Bengal. Marcara had joined the service of King Louis XIV, and was appointed director of the newly founded French East India Company. Because of the common bond of Persian language, Marcara had established cordial relations with the Qotb Shahi Dynasty.
262 lunar years ago, on this day in 1180 AH, the prominent religious scholar of Isfahan, Ayatollah Mohammad Ibrahimi Khorasani, popularly known as "Karbasi”, was born. He completed his higher studies at the Najaf Seminary in Iraq, and on returning to his hometown, lived a life of piety. He wrote numerous valuable works and passed away in Isfahan in 1261 AH.
229 solar years ago, on this day in 1791 AD, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, the famous Austrian pianist and composer, died at the young age of 35.
217 solar years ago, on this day 1803 AD, Russian poet and diplomat, Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev, was born near Bryansk. He spent most of his childhood in Moscow, and is generally considered the last of three great Romantic poets of Russia, following Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov.
208 solar years ago, on this day in 1812 AD, French Emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte, after suffering a crushing defeat by Russia, returned crestfallen to Paris. He had launched his offensive on Russia on June 2 and advanced till Moscow, where for six months he met stiff resistance in freezing cold and was driven back, having lost 320,000 of the 350,000 French troops.
185 solar years ago, on this day in 1835 AD, the Iranian statesman and political figure, Mirza Abu’l-Qasem Qa’em Maqaam Farahani, was killed for carrying out political and administrative reforms that the colonialists and their local agents deemed against their interests.
150 solar years ago, on this day in 1870 AD, French author Alexandre Dumas died at the age of 68. Among his books, mention can be made of "The Three Musketeers”, and "The Count of Monte Cristo”. He was also a playwright and has written a number of famous plays.
146 solar years ago, on this day in 1874 AD, Iran became member of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), which was set up in Geneva, Switzerland on 17 February 1863. On 5 April 1922, the "Iran Red Cross Society” changed its name to "Red Lion and Sun Society of Iran”. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution, its name was changed to the "Red Crescent Society”, which is headquartered in Tehran, and is among the top five relief agencies of the world.
126 solar years ago, on this day in 1894 AD, the famous Urdu poet of the Subcontinent, Shabbir Hassan Khan "Joush” was born in a Pashtun family in Malihabad, northern India. Joush Malihabadi has left behind valuable works in poetry and prose, including lengthy odes in praise of the Ahl al-Bayt, especially Imam Ali (AS) and Imam Husain (AS) – regarded as masterpieces of Urdu poetry.
119 solar years ago, on this day in 1901 AD, the famous American showman, animator and producer of children’s cinema and cartoons, Walt Disney, was born in Chicago in a family of Irish origin.
79 solar years ago, on this day in 1941 AD, the scholar, Mirza Mohammad Taher Tonekabouni, passed away at the age of 78 in Tehran and was laid to rest in the mausoleum of the famous theologian, Shaikh Sadouq in Rayy.
69 lunar years ago, on this day in 1373 AH, Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Sadr od-Din Sadr, passed away at the age of 74 in holy Qom.
68 solar years ago, on this day in 1952 AD, a dense cold fog descended upon London, combining with air pollution and killing over four thousand people in four days. It paralyzed transport service because of almost nil visibility. Even after its clearance, deaths continued to occur for several weeks, and claimed 12,000 lives.
57 solar years ago, on this day in 1963 AD, Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardi, the 5th Prime Minister of Pakistan and one of its founding fathers, passed away in Beirut, Lebanon, and his body was brought for burial to Dhaka – then in East Pakistan and now capital of Bangladesh. He was premier from 1956 to 1957.
42 solar years ago, on this day in 1978 AD, the eminent scholar and educationist, Dr. Eisa Seddiq who was entrusted by the government to establish the University of Tehran in 1934, passed away at the age of 84.
40 solar years ago, on this day in 1980 AD, Brigadier General, Ahmad Keshvari, attained martyrdom at the age of 27 while on an airborne mission during the 8-year war imposed on Iran by the US through Saddam.
30 solar years ago, on this day in 1990 AD, classical Iranian musician, Manouchehr Jahanbeglou, passed away at the age of 62.
24 solar years ago, on this day in 1996 AD, Iranian film director and screen writer, Ali Hatami, passed away.
15 solar years ago, on this day in 2005 AD, an Iranian Air Force C-130 military transport aircraft crashed into a ten-floor apartment building in a residential area of Tehran, killing all 84 on board and 44 more on the ground. Most of the passengers on board were journalists heading to the port city of Bandar Abbas to cover the sea games in the Persian Gulf waters.
7 solar years ago, on this day in 2013 AD, Nelson Mandela, lawyer, politician and 1st President of South Africa, died at the age of 95 in Johannesburg.