Today is Saturday; 17th of the Iranian month of Aban 1399 solar hijri; corresponding to 21st of the Islamic month of Rabi al-Awwal 1442 lunar hijri; and November 7, 2020, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.
1390 solar years ago, on this day in 630 AD, Byzantine Emperor Constans II was born to Constantine III (son of the famous Heraclius). His 27-year reign saw loss of territory to the rising power of the Arab Muslims. When Imam Ali (AS), the righteous heir of Prophet Mohammad (blessings of God upon him and his progeny), took over the caliphate, the senseless raids, plunders, and killing of Christians and other peoples, were halted. Constans took this respite to devote himself to European affairs in the Balkans and Italy, moving his capital to Syracuse on the island of Sicily, entrusting administration of Constantinople and the eastern provinces to his son and successor Constantine IV as co-emperor. Imam Ali (AS) believed in winning hearts through rational discourse about the dynamism of Islam rather than unnecessary wars or occupation of the lands of other nations. With the martyrdom of the Imam and seizure of the caliphate by Mu’awiyah from Imam Hasan (AS), the Arabs renewed their raids against Byzantine. On September 15, 668, Constans II was assassinated in his bath by his chamberlain.
1026 solar years ago, on this day in 994 AD, Spanish Muslim philosopher and scientist, Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa’eed, popular as Ibn Hazm al-Andalusi, was born in Cordova. As a theologian, he was a leading proponent in Spain of the Zaheri School of jurisprudence founded by the Iranian Sunni jurist, Dawoud az-Zaheri al-Isfahani, who opposed the "qiyas” or analogy of his compatriot Abu Hanifa. He reportedly wrote 400 works on a variety of topics, of which only 40 still survive.
594 solar years ago, on this day in 1426 AD, the Lam Son Uprising in Vietnam led by Le Loi emerged victorious against the Ming army of China in the Battle of Tot Dong–Chuc Dong near what is now Hanoi. Two years later China conceded defeat and its occupation forces surrendered to the Vietnamese.
528 solar years ago, on this day in 1492 AD, Ensisheim, the oldest meteorite with a known date of impact, struck the earth around noon in a wheat field outside the village of Ensisheim, in Alsace, France.
209 solar years ago, on this day in 1811 AD, the Battle of Tippecanoe was fought between native Amerindians and the US forces led by William Henry Harrison, who resorted to deceit and breach of treaty to defeat Shawnee chiefs, Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa, the leaders of a confederacy of native Amerindians from various tribes opposing US expansionism in North America.
199 lunar years ago, on this day in 1243 AH, the Iranian city of Erivan and the khanate of the same name in the Caucasus, was occupied by Russia after stiff resistance by the governor Hussain Qoli Khan Qajar, during the two-year war that led to the signing of the humiliating Turkmenchay Treaty by the inefficient ruler Fath Ali Shah Qajar, resulting in the detachment from the Persian Empire of what are now the Caucasus republics of Armenia and Azerbaijan, along with Nakhichevan. Erivan was renamed Yerevan and became the centre of the Russian oblast of Armenia. For more than two millenniums, most of the Caucasus, including Daghestan and the eastern section of Georgia were part of the various Persian Empires.
158 solar years ago, on this day in 1862 AD, the exiled titular Moghal Emperor, Siraj od-Din Mohammad Bahadur Shah II "Zafar”, died in prison in Rangoon (Yangon, capital of Myanmar) at the age of 87 and was buried in an unmarked grave by his British captors. Zafar was an accomplished poet in both Persian and Urdu.
141 solar years ago, on this day in 1879 AD, Russian Marxist leader, Leon Trotsky, was born. He wrote a number of books including "History of the Russian Revolution” and "The Revolution Betrayed”.
103 solar years ago, on this day in 1917 AD, with World War I raging, the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin and Trotsky, hijacked the February Revolution of the Russian people by toppling the interim government of Alexander Kerensky and seizing power in Russia.
67 solar years ago, on this day in 1953 AD, Mohammad Reza Shah of the British-installed Pahlavi regime after being restored to the Peacock Throne in Tehran by the US-engineered coup of August 19, 1953, ordered the trial of the overthrown popularly elected Prime Minister Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeq, in a military court. The charges against him were nationalization of Iranian oil industry and resistance to the US-British coup. Mosaddeq defended nationalization of the Iranian oil industry to end its exploitation by the British oil firms, and denounced the coup to topple his elected government as violation of Iran’s sovereignty. The military court sentenced him to a 3-year prison term, after the expiry of which he was kept under house arrest for eleven years until his death in 1967.
64 solar years ago, on this day in 1956 AD, the Suez War ended with the mediation of the UN. The war had started with the invasion of Sinai Peninsula by the illegal Zionist entity, and the raid on the Suez Canal region by its backers, the British and the French. The pretext for the invasion of Egypt by these three states was nationalization of the Suez Canal by Egyptian president, Jamal Abdun-Naser.
45 solar years ago, on this day 1975 AD in Bangladesh, a joint force of people and soldiers took part in an uprising led by Colonel Abu Tahir to oust and kill coup leader Brigadier Khalid Musharraf, thereby freeing the then house-arrested army chief and future president Major-General Zia ur-Rahman.
39 solar years ago, on this day in 1981 AD, prolific US writer, historian, and philosopher, William James Durant, died. He is best known for his 11-volume work "The Story of Civilization”, written in collaboration with his wife, Ariel Durant and published between 1935 and 1975.
34 solar years ago, on this day in 1986 AD, prominent writer, researcher and translator, Karim Keshavarz, passed away at the age of 86. Born in Rasht, Gilan Province, he was proficient in English, French and Russian. He was also politically active and was subjected to bouts of prison by the Pahlavi regime. His famous work is "Hazar Saal Nasr Parsi” (A Thousand years of Persian Literature).
23 solar years ago, on this day in 1997 AD, the famous Iranian author, Seyyed Mohammad Ali Jamalzadeh, passed away in Geneva, Switzerland at the age of 106. Among his famous works are "Yeki Bood Yeki Nabood” (Once Upon a Time), "Farsi Shekar Ast” (Persian is Sugar), "Sahra-e Mahshar” (The Plain of Resurrection) and "Ghair az Khoda Hichkas Nabood” (None Existed Except God).
8 solar years ago, on this day in 2012 AD, the repressing Aal-e Khalifa minority regime of Bahrain illegally evoked the citizenship of 31 men, including exiled political activists and former opposition members of Parliament, as part of its measures to change the demography of this Persian Gulf island state.
7 solar years ago, on this day in 2013 AD, terrorists on the payroll of Saudi Arabia, martyred Iranian state prosecutor Musa Nouri in Sistan-Baluchestan Province. In collaboration with the US and the illegal Zionist entity, the Wahhabis indulge in terroristic activities in a vain bid to disrupt Islamic unity in Iran.