Today is Monday; 5th of the Iranian month of Aban 1399 solar hijri; corresponding to 9th of the Islamic month of Rabi al-Awwal 1442 lunar hijri; and October 26, 2020, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.
1377 lunar years ago, on this day in 65 AH, Omar ibn Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, the commander of Yazid’s army in the Battle of Karbala, was executed for his unpardonable sin of perpetrating the tragic martyrdom of Imam Husain (AS), his family, and his companions, including the 6-month old infant, Ali Asghar; decapitating the martyrs and mounting their heads on lances; trampling the corpses of martyrs by horses; and dragging as captives to the courts of the tyrants in Kufa and Damascus, the noble women and children of the household of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). A seditious person throughout his life, Omar ibn Sa’d who failed to heed the earnest advice of Imam Husain (AS) before the battle to save his soul from perfidy, was executed by his own brother-in-law (i.e. his wife’s brother), Mokhtar ibn Abi Obayda Thaqafi, a virtuous Muslim who had vowed to avenge the martyrdom of Imam Husain (AS). Mokhtar’s uprising succeeded in driving out the Omayyads from Iraq and bringing to justice all the principal killers of the Prophet’s grandson.
1182 lunar years ago, on this day in 260 AH, marks the first day of the divinely-decreed Imamate or leadership of mankind of Imam Mahdi (AS), the 12th and Last Infallible Heir of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). A day before his father, Imam Hasan al-Askari (AS), was martyred through poisoning. His mother was the noble and virtuous Greek lady, the Byzantine emperor’s granddaughter, Hazrat Narjis (SA), who on her mother’s side she was descended from Simeon the loyal disciple of Prophet Jesus (AS). When he was orphaned the 12th Imam was 5 years old and was brought up in secrecy, since the Abbasid caliphs were fearful of the Prophet’s famous hadith that the 12th and the Last of his Infallible Heirs would rise as Qa’em al-Mahdi to cleanse the world of all traces of oppression and corruption by establishing the global government of peace, prosperity, and justice. The Abbasids launched a manhunt to find the orphaned boy but by God’s Grace he was safe from his enemies in what is called the state of "Ghaybat as-Soghra” (Minor Occultation). In 329 AH, the "Ghaybat al-Kobra” (Major Occultation) started, which still continues, and by the Grace of God, the Redeemer of mankind, along with Prophet Jesus, will reappear in the end times when the earth would be filled with injustice.
1095 solar years ago, on this day in 925 AD, the famous Iranian Islamic physician and chemist, Mohammad ibn Zakariyya Razi, passed away at the age of 60. He has compiled almost 250 works in different scientific courses, including "al-Hawi” al-Kabir, on ways of leading a sound and healthy life. This monumental medical encyclopedia in nine volumes is also known as "Jame’ al-Kabir”. Razi also wrote "al-Mansouri”, and "Sayrat al-Falsafiyah” on philosophy. He also wrote a home medical (remedial) manual for the general public titled "Man La Yahzuruhu at-Ṭabeeb”, (He Who has no Physician to Attend Him).
601 lunar years ago, on this day in 841 AH, work started for construction of the Gowharshad Mosque in the southern courtyard of the holy shrine of Imam Reza (AS), the 8th Infallible Heir of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). This magnificent mosque was built on the orders of Empress Gowharshad Begum, the virtuous Iranian wife of Shahrukh Mirza, the son and successor of the fearsome Turkic conqueror, Amir Timur. Gowharshad also set up a "waqf” (endowment) for maintenance of this grand mosque and its library. The architect was Qawwam od-Din Shirazi, who is responsible for so many of Shah Rukh’s great buildings. The mosque’s portal continues the Samarqand style of arch within arch, enriched by a succession of bevels that give it depth and power.
464 solar years ago, on this day in 1556 AD, Ahmad Baba al-Massufi al-Timbukti, the greatest Islamic scholar of Sub-Saharan Africa was born to a Sanhaja Berber Aqit family in Araouane, Mali, then known as the Western Sudan. He wrote more than 40 books and is often noted as having been Timbuktu’s greatest scholar. His works remain the best sources for the study of al-Maghili and Mali’s legal history.
423 solar years ago, on this day in 1597 AD, during the Imjin War, Admiral Yi Sun-sin of Korea’s Joseon kingdom, with only 13 ships routed the powerful Japanese Navy consisting of 133 ships at the Battle of Myeongnyang in the strait of the same name near Jindo Island off the southwest corner of the Korean peninsula.
354 solar years ago, on this day in 1666 AD, the Safavid Emperor of Iran, Shah Abbas II, died in Khosrou-Abad near Damghan at the age of 34 after a reign of 24 years. His rule was relatively peaceful and was free of any Ottoman attack. In 1648 he managed to retake Qandahar in what is now Afghanistan, and hold it against attacks by Mughal India.
331 solar years ago, on this day in 1689 AD, General Enea Silvio Piccolomini of Austria, while leading an army against the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, burned down the city of Skopje – presently the capital of the Republic of Macedonia – on the pretext of stopping the spread of cholera, but this did not prevent his own death soon from cholera affliction. The fire had disastrous effect and the city’s population fell from around 60,000 to around 10,000, and it also lost its importance as a trade centre.
207 solar years ago, on this day in 1813 AD, Canadians and the native Mohawks joined together to defeat the Americans in the Battle of Chateauguay, when the US tried to invade and occupy Canada.
147 solar years ago, on this day in 1873 AD, the noted statesman of the Subcontinent, Abu’l-Qassem Fazl ul-Haq, known as Sher-e-Bangla (Tiger of Bengal), was born in what is now Bangladesh.
108 solar years ago, on this day in 1912 AD, during the First Balkan War, the Turkish Muslim city of Selanik was surrendered to the Greek invaders by its Ottoman governor Tahsin Pasha, as assistance failed to arrive from Istanbul in the face of a twin aggression by the breakaway Turkish provinces of Yunanistan (Greece) and Bulgharistan (Bulgaria), which both wanted to seize more Muslim territories including this thriving port city. On the same day, troops of another breakaway Ottoman province, Servistan (Serbia), captured Skopje – currently the capital of the Republic of Macedonia.
93 lunar years ago, on this day in 1349 AH (1930 AD), Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Sistani was born in the holy city of Mashhad, Khorasan, northeastern Iran, in a family of religious scholars.
47 solar years ago, on this day in 1973 AD, Ayatollah Seyyed Ahmad Hussaini Zanjani passed away at the age of 83 and was laid to rest in Qom in the holy mausoleum of Hazrat Ma’souma (SA). After initial studies in his hometown Zanjan, he moved to Qom on revival of the Seminary of that holy city by Ayatollah Shaikh Abdul-Karim Ha’eri and mastered jurisprudence, theology, history, and literature. He was well aware of contemporary issues. His works include "Khayr al-Omour”, "Afwah ar-Rejaal”, and "Forouq al-Ahkaam”.
41 solar years ago, on this day in 1979 AD, Iranian Islamic scholar and Hadith researcher, Prof. Seyyed Jalal od-Din ‘Mohaddith’ Ormavi, passed away at the age of 75 and was laid to rest in Rayy in the holy mausoleum of Hazrat Shah Abdul-Azim al-Hassani (AS), beside the grave of the great exegete of the holy Qur’an, Shaikh Abu’l-Futouh Razi.
26 solar years ago, on this day in 1994 AD, Jordan’s King Hussein, and Zionist premier, Yitzhak Rabin, signed a scandalous treaty, brokered by Israel’s godfather, the US, in order to weaken the Arab front against Israel. The so-called peace process had started as of the Madrid Conference, convened in 1991 in the Spanish capital. The US had promised to waive Jordan’s debts and to provide financial aid on condition that Amman enter into trade with the usurper Zionist entity. The US never fully honoured its word, thereby further humiliating the Jordanian ruler, who for long years had been in secret contact with Israel in the vain hope that compromise would boost his country’s economy. This never happened and on the contrary the Jordanian people became more infuriated towards the regime and the US.
25 solar years ago, on this day in 1995 AD, Dr. Fathhi Shaqaqi, the Secretary-General of Palestine’s Islamic Jihad, and an active combatant against the illegal Zionist entity, was martyred by Mossad agents on the Mediterranean island state of Malta at the age of 44 years. He was born in a Palestinian refugee camp in Gaza, and studied medicine at Cairo University.