Today is Saturday; 12th of the Iranian month of Mehr 1399 solar hijri; corresponding to 15th of the Islamic month of Safar 1442 lunar hijri; and October 3, 2020, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.
1325 lunar years ago, on this day in 127 AH, Marwan al-Hemar (literally "the Donkey”) started his rule as the 14th caliph of the usurper Omayyad regime by displacing Ibrahim, who days earlier had been installed as the new caliph on the death of Yazid III, who in turn had ruled for only six months on assuming power after the less than a year rule of the depraved Walid II. This meant that in one year four of the so-called caliphs had come and gone after the long reign of the tyrant, Hisham ibn Abdul-Malik. Marwan presided over the end of the hated Omayyad regime that was thrown into the dustbin of history in 132 AH when he was caught and killed in Egypt, while fleeing the advance of the Abbasids from Khorasan to Iraq and Syria. The dynasty had been founded by the Godless Mu’awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan, on his seizure of the caliphate in 41 AH from Imam Husain (AS), the elder grandson and 2nd Infallible Heir of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). The Abbasids – descendants of Abbas, an uncle of the Prophet – now usurped political power by exploiting the sentiments of the people of Iran, Iraq and Hijaz, for the Ahl al-Bayt, but turned out to be as cruel as the Omayyads, as is evident by their persecution of the Prophet’s progeny and martyring through poisoning 6 of the Infallible Imams.
1120 solar years ago, on this day in 900 AD, the Alawid Emir of Tabaristan, Mohammad Ibn Zayd, known as "ad-Da’i as-Sagheer” (the Younger Missionary), attained martyrdom, a day after he was mortally wounded in battle near Gorgan, while defending his realm off the Caspian Sea coast of Iran against the Samanid invaders. He was 6th in line of descent from Imam Hasan Mojtaba (AS), the elder grandson and 2nd Infallible Heir of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). The Samanid army decapitated his corpse and took his head to Bukhara, while the body was buried at the gate of Gorgan and soon became a centre of pilgrimage. His death ended the 36-year rule of the First Alawid state established in what are now the provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan by his elder brother Hassan Ibn Zayd, known as "ad-Da’i al-Kabeer” (the Elder Missionary), who was invited by the people of northern Iran to lead them against the Abbasid regime. Mohammad, who ruled for 16 years, had served as governor and commander during the 20-year rule of his elder brother when the Alawid realm was constantly invaded by the Abbasids and their local agents. A cultured figure, who appreciated poetry and composed poems of his own, his welfare policies increased popularity of his rule amongst the Iranians, whom he enlightened with the teachings of the Prophet’s Ahl al-Bayt. He rebuilt the holy shrines of Najaf and Karbala – of Imam Ali (AS) and Imam Husain (AS) – that were destroyed some forty years earlier by the Godless Abbasid tyrant Mutawakkel. In 914, the Alawid state of Tabaristan was revived by Seyyed Hassan al-Utrush – 5th in line of descent from the Prophet’s 4th Infallible Heir, Imam Zain al-Abedin (AS). He soundly defeated the Samanid occupiers at Burdidah on the River Burroud, west of Chalous. He had survived Mohammad Ibn Zayd’s defeat and martyrdom in the Battle of Gorgan 14 years earlier. He passed away in 917. The Alawid State lasted till 931.
628 solar years ago, on this day in 1392 AD, Muhammad VII became the twelfth sultan of the Nasrid Emirate of Granada in Spain. Son of Yusuf II and grandson of Muhammad V, in 1394 he defeated an invasion by the Christian coalition of the Order of Alcántara. In 1404, He concluded a treaty of friendship with Martin I of Aragon and engaged Charles III of Navarre in talks, thwarting Henry III of Castile’s attempt to enlist those two Christian rulers as allies against Granada. In 1406. In 1407, Granada lost the region of Zahara de la Sierra to the Christians. The next year Sultan Muhammad VII died and was succeeded by his older brother, Yusuf III.
575 solar years ago, on this day in 1445 AD, the Egyptian Sunni scholar Abdur-Rahman Jalal od-Din as-Suyuti was born in a family of Persian origin that had migrated from Iran during the Mamluk period and settled in Asyut, in Upper Egypt from where it derived the family name as-Suyuti. A follower of the Shafe’i School, he was an expert in jurisprudence, hadith, history, exegesis of the Holy Qur’an, and Arabic grammar and literature. His books are still taught in Islamic seminaries. In his exegesis titled "ad-Dur al-Manthour” (Scattered Pearls), he has pointed to the ayahs revealed by God Almighty on the outstanding merits of the Prophet’s Ahl al-Bayt, i.e. Hazrat Fatema Zahra, Imam Ali, Imam Hasan and Imam Husain (peace upon them). He also wrote a separate book on the Merits of the Ahl al-Bayt.
458 lunar years ago, on this day in 984 AH, Shah Tahmasp I, the second emperor of the Safavid Dynasty of Iran, passed away at the age of 63 after a long reign of 53 years. He ascended the throne at the age of 10 on the death of his father, Shah Ismail I.
281 solar years ago, on this day in 1739 AD, the Treaty of Nis was signed in Eastern Serbia by the Ottoman and Russian Empires to end the 4-year Russo-Turkish War, which was the result of the Russian effort to gain Azov and Crimea on the Black Sea coast in what is now Ukraine. Austria entered the war in 1737 on the Russian side, but was forced to make peace with the Ottomans in the separate Treaty of Belgrade, surrendering Northern Serbia, Northern Bosnia and Oltenia. As a result, Russia was compelled to give up claim to Crimea and Moldavia, although the Ottomans allowed it to build a port at Azov without fortifications and without a fleet in the Black Sea.
154 solar years ago, on this day in 1866 AD, the Vienna Treaty was signed between Austrian Empire and Italian city states, ending Austrian interference and paving the way for the unity of Italy in 1870.
90 solar years ago, on this day in 1930 AD, the Orientalist and Iranist, Friedrich Carl Andreas, died in Germany.
88 solar years ago, on this day in 1932 AD, Iraq was granted independence by Britain, although London continued to keep close control of affairs of the country it had created after World War I.
73 lunar years ago, on this day in 1369 AH, senior Iranian religious leader, Ayatollah Mirza Mohammad Ali Shahabadi, passed away in Tehran at the age of 77. He was an accomplished scholar in the field of philosophy and Gnosticism and groomed numerous students at the Qom Seminary. Among his prominent students was the Father of the Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini (RA). He wrote a large number of books and treatises including "al-Insaan wa’l-Khateraat”.
30 solar years ago, on this day in 1990 AD, Germany was re-unified with merger of the socialist German Democratic Republic and capitalist Federal Republic of Germany, after 45 years of division as a result of Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler’s defeat in the Second World War in 1945.
24 solar years ago, on this day in 1996 AD, Iranian author, translator, and university lecturer, Dr. Morteza As’adi, passed away. He was an authority on translation of literary and Islamic texts and besides Persian, was fluent in Arabic and English languages. He wrote several books and articles. His books include "Crusades”, and "World of Islam”. He translated into Persian "Political Philosophy”, and "Bayt al-Moqaddas”.
8 solar years ago, on this day in 2012 AD, Indian Islamic scholar, Dr. Mohammad Abdul Haq Ansari, passed away in Aligarh at the age of 81. Born in Tamkohi in what is now Uttar Pradesh State, he completed Islamic studies from Darsgah-e Islami, Rampur in 1953, did bachelors in Arabic in 1957, M.A. in philosophy in 1959, PhD in 1962 from Aligarh Muslim University, and M.T.S in Comparative Religion and Theology from Harvard University, USA in 1972. He served as Professor and Head of the Department of Arabic, Persian and Islamic Studies, Vishwa Bharti University, Shantiniketan, Bengal, from 1965 to 1978. He was the president of Jamaat-e-Islami-e Hind from 2003 to 2007. He was also Chancellor of the Jamia Islamia, Shantapuram in Kerala. His book "Learning the Language of Qur’an” is considered as one of the best English guides for beginners of Qur’anic studies. Among his works, before he taught at universities in Saudi Arabia, are well-researched books on two of the Iranian philosophers, titled "The Ethical Philosophy of Miskawaih” (1964), and "The Moral Philosophy of al-Farabi” (1965). He died in October 2012.