Today is Tuesday; 1st of the Iranian month of Mehr 1399 solar hijri; corresponding to 4th of the Islamic month of Safar 1442 lunar hijri; and September 22, 2020, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.
809 solar years ago, on this day in 1211 AD, the famous biographer of Kurdish origin, Shams od-Din Abu’l-Abbas Ahmad Ibn Mohammad Ibn Khallikan was born in Arbil in northeastern Iraq. His most renowned work is the biographical dictionary entitled "Wafayaat al-Ayaan wa-Anba Abna az-Zamaan” (Deaths of Eminent Men and Accounts of the Sons of the Epoch), which took eighteen years to complete.
500 solar years ago, on this day in 1520 AD, the Ottoman sultan, Selim I, died at the age of 55 after a reign of 8 years, some 3 years after seizing Syria and Egypt from the Mamluk rulers and declaring himself caliph, although he had no right or legitimacy even from the Sunni point of view.
481 solar years ago, on this day in 1539 AD, the founder of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak, passed away at the age of 70 in Kartarpur in what is now Pakistan’s Punjab province. Born in what is now Nankana Sahib near Lahore in Pakistan, on growing up he became disillusioned by the weird practices of the Hindus such as idol-worship, the divisive caste system, etc. He travelled widely, as far as Baghdad and holy Mecca, and as is clear from his teachings, he became profoundly impressed by the egalitarian principles of the divine message of Islam. He thus taught that God is One, is Omnipotent, Omnipresent, without shape and form, not bound by time, and cannot be perceived by the physical eye of creatures. According to him the Sikhs should have control over their internal vices and adhere to the virtues clarified in their religious book, the Guru Granth Sahib. Among prohibitions in Sikhism are idol-worship and superstition, ban on consumption of all sorts of intoxicants (alcohol, drugs, and even tobacco), abstention from adultery and extra marital relations, and refraining from cutting hair. The Sikh population is estimated to be 30 million worldwide, with the majority of them living in India, especially in Punjab State.
318 solar years ago, on this day in 1702 AD, Ottoman Grand Vizier, Koprulu Hussein Pasha, passed away at the age of 58 after five years as prime minister.
229 solar years ago, on this day in 1791 AD, British physicist, Michael Faraday, was born near London.
192 solar years ago, on this day in 1828 AD, Shaka Zulu, the founder of the Zulu Kingdom in present day South Africa, was killed by his two step brothers after a reign of 13 years. One of his brothers who succeeded him fought the Dutch invaders, known as Boers, from 1830 to 1839. In 1880, the new colonial power, Britain, occupied the Zulu kingdom and divided it into several parts. Zulus are currently considered a powerful minority in South Africa and are represented by the Inkatha Freedom Party.
148 solar years ago, on this day in 1872 AD, Vladimir Dal, Russian lexicographer and linguist, died in Moscow at the age 71.
139 solar years ago, on this day in 1881 AD, Qajarid Iran was forced to officially recognize Russia’s annexation of the ancient Iranian land of Khwarezm in Central Asia through the Treaty of Akhal. Following Iran’s defeat in 1860, and with the increasing occupation of its territories in the southern Caucasus by Russia, and eastern Khorasan by Britain and the Afghans; Moscow stepped up its campaign to take full control of Central Asia. Forces led by Generals Mikhail Skobelev, Ivan Lazarev and Konstantin Kaufman led the campaign, while Iran was unable to react. The immobilized Naser od-Din Shah sent foreign secretary Mirza Sa’eed Khan Mo’tamen ol-Mulk to meet Ivan Zinoviev and sign the treaty, by virtue of which Iran would henceforth cease any claim to all parts of Transoxiana, setting the Atrak River as the new boundary. Three years later in 1884, the historical Iranian cities of Merv, Sarakhs, Ishqabad, and the surrounding areas were transferred to Russian control, and are now part of the modern republic of Turkmenistan. Khwarezm is a large oasis region on the River Oxus delta in West-Central Asia, bordered to the north by the Aral Sea, to the east the Qyzylkum Desert, to the south the Qarakum Desert and to the west the Ustyurt Plateau. Its famous capitals where Iranian scholars and scientists flourished were Kath, Gurganj and from the 16th century onwards Khiva. Today Khwarezm is divided among the republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan.
118 solar years ago, on this day in 1902 AD, the Father of the Islamic Revolution, Imam Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (RA) was born in Khomein. From childhood he was immersed in the study of Islamic sciences, and was aware and conscious of political developments in those days of Iran’s subservience to the British and the Russians. When he entered manhood, and was already a scholar of repute in hadith, philosophy and other fields, he saw the British replace the Qajarid dynasty with an illiterate soldier named Reza Khan, who took the surname Pahlavi and unleashed oppression on the people and the ulema – forcibly unveiling women and banning men from wearing the traditional Iranian dress by imposing upon them European clothes. In 1941, the British replaced Reza Khan with his son, Mohammad Reza on the Peacock Throne, and this new self-styled king was even more submissive to his masters. In the early 1950s the Imam saw the oil nationalization movement take shape and the Shah fled but was restored to power in the August 1953 CIA coup by the Americans, his new masters. In 1963, the Imam openly spoke against the anti-Islamic policies of the corrupt Pahlavi regime, for which he was imprisoned and then exiled – initially to Turkey and thereafter to Iraq, where he spent 14 years in holy Najaf, beside the shrine of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (AS), grooming a large number of scholars. His guidelines generated the Islamic Revolution, and in February 1979, after a brief three-month stay in Paris, he returned to Iran to found the Islamic Republic. He thus delivered the country from both domestic despotism and foreign hegemony. It was his astute guidance that saved Islamic Iran from the intricate plots of the Great Satan (the US) including the 8-year war imposed by the American stooge Saddam. Imam Khomeini, who led the worldwide Islamic revival, was a prominent Mujtahid and a Gnostic of the highest order, who wrote several books. His concept of "Wilayat-e Faqih” (Governance of the Supreme Jurist) in the absence of the Infallible Imam is indeed an unique and the keys to the steadfastness and success of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the face of heavy odds. His speeches and messages are gathered in the 21-volume book "Sahifa-e Noor” (Scripture of Light). He has also composed Persian poetry.
112 lunar years ago, on this day in 1330 AH, the combatant Iranian religious leader, Mirza Ali Aqa Siqqat-ol-Islam Tabrizi, was martyred by the invading Russian forces. He played an important role in Tabriz, as an activist of the Constitutional Revolution.
73 lunar years ago, on this day in 1369 AH, senior Iranian religious leader, Ayatollah Mirza Mohammad Ali Shahabadi, passed away in Tehran at the age of 77. Ayatollah Shahabadi wrote a large number of books and treatises including "al-Insaan wa’l-Khateraat”.
60 solar years ago, on this day in 1960 AD, the northwest African country of Mali gained independence from French colonial rule.
55 solar years ago, on this day in 1965 AD, the second Indo-Pakistani War (also known as the Second Kashmir War between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, ended after the UN called for a ceasefire.
41 solar years ago, on this day in 1979 AD, Indian-Pakistani Islamic scholar and journalist, Abu’l-Ala Maududi, passed away at the age of 76 in Buffalo New York State, US, where he was undergoing medical treatment. His numerous works were written in Urdu and included the analytical book titled "Khilafat va Muloukiyat” (Caliphate and Monarchy), in which he has strongly criticized Osman ibn Affan, the 3rd self-styled caliph, as incompetent and unworthy.
14 solar years ago, on this day in 2006 AD, Lebanon’s legendry anti-terrorist movement, the Hezbollah celebrated "Divine Victory” over the illegal Zionist entity, in a massive demonstration in Beirut, following Israel’s shattering defeat in its 33-day unprovoked war.