Today is Monday 31st of the Iranian month of Shahrivar 1399 solar hijri; corresponding to the 3rd of the Islamic month of Safar 1442 lunar hijri; and September 21, 2020, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.
2039 solar years ago, on this day in 19 BC; the famous poet of ancient Rome, Publius Vergilius Maro, popular as "Virgil”, died at the age of 51. His masterpiece is the epic Latin poem "Aeniad” that tells the legend of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
1385 lunar years ago, on this day in 57 AH, according to a narration, is the birth anniversary of Imam Mohammad al-Baqer (AS), the 5th Infallible Successor of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA). Born in Medina, he was present in Karbala as a four-year old boy and was witness to the tragic martyrdom of his grandfather, Imam Husain (AS). In the aftermath of the tragedy he was imprisoned by the Omayyads, along with his parents and the rest of the womenfolk and children of the Prophet’s progeny. His father was Imam Zain al-Abedin (AS) while his mother Fatema (SA) was the daughter of the Prophet’s elder grandson, Imam Hasan al-Mojtaba (AS), which means he was descended on both sides from the Prophet. During his 19-year Imamate, he strove to spread the genuine teachings of Islam and the pure and pristine practice (Sunnah) and behaviour (Seerah) of the Prophet. In fact, his epithet "Baqer al-Uloum” (Splitter and Spreader of Sciences) was foretold by the Prophet himself through the prominent Sahabi, Jaber Ibn Abdullah al-Ansari, who lived until the time of the 5th Imam’s childhood and conveyed to him the Messenger of Islam’s message. In addition to the followers of the Ahl al-Bayt, Sunni Muslims have also narrated hadith on his authority. Before his martyrdom at the age of 57 as a result of poisoning by the Omayyad caliph, Hesham ibn Abdul-Malik, he opened many vistas of knowledge, which were taken to new heights by his son and successor, Imam Ja’far as-Sadeq (AS).
1234 lunar years ago, on this day in 208 AH, according to a narration, Seyyeda Nafisah, the great granddaughter of Imam Hasan al-Mujtaba (AS) – the elder grandson of Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) – and daughter-in-law of the Prophet’s 6th Infallible Heir, Imam Ja’far as-Sadeq (AS), passed away while engrossed in the recitation of holy Qur’an at the age of 63 in Fustat near what is now Cairo in Egypt. She was laid to rest in that city when husband Ishaq al-Mo’tamen saw the Prophet in his dream, instructing him not to take the body to homeland Hijaz for burial in Medina, as planned. She was a very pious and God-fearing lady, in contrast to her unprincipled father, Hassan al-Anwar (son of ibn Zayd al-Ablaj), who contrary to the ways of the Ahl al-Bayt, had sided with the usurper Abbasid regime against his own kinsmen, serving as governor of Medina during the tyrant Mansour Dawaniqi’s caliphate and opposing the marriage of Nafisah to Ishaq. Her husband was noted for his piety, knowledge, and reliability in narrating hadith, for which he had earned the epithet "al-Mo’tamen” or trustworthy. He was witness to the last will written by his brother Imam Musa al-Kazem (AS) to son, Imam Ali ar-Reza (AS).
1109 lunar years ago, on this day in 333 AH, al-Muttaqi-Billah, the 21st self-styled caliph of the usurper Abbasid regime, was deposed and blinded after a rule of four years by the Turkic general, Tuzun, who replaced him on the same day with a cousin called al-Mustakfi.
1037 lunar years ago, on this day in 405 AH, prominent Iranian Sunni Muslim compiler of hadith, Mohammad Ibn Abdullah, Hakem an-Naishapuri, passed away in his native Khorasan at the age 81.
444 solar years ago, on this day in 1576 AD, Gerolamo Cardano, Italian physician, mathematician, astrologer, and philosopher, died at the age of 75.
362 solar years ago, on this day in 1658 AD, the controversial religious reformer of the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian Archipelago, Noor od-Din Mohammad Ibn Ali Ibn Hassan ar-Raniri, passed away in India.
262 solar years ago, on this day in 1758 AD, French linguist and orientalist, Antoine Isaac, titled Baron Silvestre de Sacy, was born in Paris.
244 solar years ago, on this day in 1776 AD, part of New York City was burned shortly after British forces captured it during the rebellion of the 13 New England colonies – later called the American War of Independence.
228 solar years ago, on this day in 1792 AD, three years after the victory of the French revolution, the monarchic system was formally replaced with a republic and a constitutional assembly called the National Convention took charge of the administration.
210 solar years ago, on this day in 1810 AD, the famous Urdu and Persian poet of India, Mir Mohammad Taqi Mir, passed away at the age of 87. A prolific author in both Urdu and Persian, he wrote his autobiography titled "Zikr-e Mir” in Persian. In addition to his "Kulliyat-e Farsi” or Persian language collection of poems, he composed six divans in Urdu.
188 solar years ago, on this day in 1832 AD, Walter Scott, Scottish author, poet, and playwright, died at the age of 61. His novels and poetry are based on historical accounts, and remain classics of both English-language literature and of Scottish literature.
160 solar years ago, on this day in 1860 AD, during the Second Opium War, an Anglo-French force defeated Chinese troops at the Battle of Palikao (literally The Eight-Mile Bridge). It allowed Western forces to defeat the Qing Empire and take control of the capital Beijing on October 11.
160 solar years ago, on this day in 1860 AD, Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher and author, died at the age of 72. Known for his pessimism, at age 25 he published his doctoral dissertation, "On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason,” which examined the four separate manifestations of reason in the phenomenal world.
154 solar years ago, on this day in 1866 AD, English author and historian, Herbert George Wells, was born. He catapulted to fame with his science-fiction novels. Among his works are "The Time Machine”, "The Island of Doctor Moreau”, "The War of the Worlds”, and "A Modern Utopia”. He died in 1946.
101 solar years ago, on this day in 1919 AD, the well-known Islamic scholar of Pakistan, Fazl ur-Rahman Malik, was born in the Hazara area of British India (now in Pakistan). His books include: "Prophecy in Islam: Philosophy and Orthodoxy”, "Islam and Modernity: Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition”, "Major Themes of the Qur’an”, "Islamic Methodology in History”, and "Health and Medicine in the Islamic Tradition”.
56 solar years ago, on this day in 1964 AD, the island state of Malta in the Mediterranean Sea gained independence from British rule.
39 solar years ago, on this day in 1981 AD, Belize in Central America, gained independence from British rule. Formerly known as British Honduras, it covers an area of almost 22965 sq km, and shares borders with Mexico and Guatemala.
39 solar years ago, on this day in 1980 AD, Saddam of the repressive Ba’th minority regime of Baghdad, six days after tearing in front of TV cameras the 1975 Algiers Accord, launched an unprovoked invasion of the Islamic Republic of Iran at the behest of his masters in London and Washington, by air, land and sea. He occupied vast parts of southwestern and western Iran. In response the Iranians started the holy defence that thwarted all plans of the occupier and his eastern and western backers. For 8 years, the Iranian Muslims defended their homeland and managed to drive out the Ba’thist forces from almost all occupied Iranian territory. The US and Saddam, fearing the impact of the Islamic Revolution had resorted to wanton war, but as is clear today by the friendly ties between the Iranian and Iraqi people, they failed miserably. Every year Iran commemorates the Holy Defence Week to promote and preserve its egalitarian values.
33 solar years ago, on this day in 1987 AD, the US intruding forces in the Persian Gulf, in a blatant act of state terrorism in support of Saddam during the imposed war, used helicopter gunships to attack the Iranian merchant vessel "Iran Ajr” and scuttled it. Four Iranian crewmen were martyred and 26 wounded.
18 solar years ago, on this day in 2001 AD, the Islamic Republic of Iran opened in Tehran the First Universal Exhibition of Holy Culture and Defense with the theme of the Islamic Revolution and the 8-year war imposed by the US (1980-88) through Saddam of the repressive Ba’th minority regime of Baghdad.