Today is Sunday; 23rd of the Iranian month of Shahrivar 1399 solar hijri; corresponding to 24th of the Islamic month of Muharram 1442 lunar hijri; and September 13, 2020, of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.
1489 solar years ago, on this day in 531 AD, Khosrow I (Chosroes to the Greeks, Kasra to the Arabs) started his 48-year reign as the 22nd Emperor of the Sassanid Empire on the death of his father Qobad I who reigned for 41 years. He is known as Anoushirvan the Just and is the epitome of the philosopher-king in Iranian history. It was in his era that the Almighty’s Last and Greatest Messenger, Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), was born in Mecca. He was the ancestor of Hazrat Shahrbano, the Iranian princess who was the wife of Imam Husain (AS) and mother of Imam Zayn al-Abedin (AS).
1244 lunar years ago, on this day in 198 AH, the 6th ruler of the usurper Abbasid regime, Mohammad al-Amin, was defeated, caught while fleeing, and executed by Taher Ibn Hussain, the Iranian commander of the army sent by his stepbrother Abdullah al-Mamoun from Khorasan to attack Baghdad and seize the caliphate. Amin, who ruled for four years following the death of his father, the tyrant Haroun ar-Rasheed, was an impetuous, rash, incompetent, and immoral person, immersed in the un-Islamic practice of sodomy.
1234 solar years ago, on this day in 786 AD, Abdullah al-Ma’mun, the 7th ruler of the usurper Abbasid dynasty, was born to Marajil, the Iranian concubine of the tyrant Haroun ar-Rashid. On growing up he was made governor of the eastern lands extending from Iran to Central Asia, with Marv in Khorasan as the seat of power. In 813, five years after Haroun’s death, Ma’mun sent an army to Baghdad to attack and his kill his profligate elder step-brother, Amin, and proclaimed himself caliph. He ruled for 20 years and died in Tarsus in what is now Turkey, a horrible death of unquenchable thirst despite drinking gallons of cool water. Crafty and articulate, Mamoun’s greatest cardinal sin was the martyring of Imam Reza (AS), the 8th Infallible Heir of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), through a fatal dose of poisoned grapes, after inviting him to Khorasan and forcing him to accept being his heir, although the Imam was almost twenty years his senior.
170 lunar years ago, on this day in 1272 AH, the prominent religious scholar, Mullah Mohammad Taqi Astarabadi, passed away while on a visit to Tehran. Son of the noted religious scholar, Mullah Mohammad Ismail, he was a student of Mohammad Taqi bin Mohammad Rahim od-Din Tehrani-Isfahani, the author of "Hidayat al-Mustarshedin”, and attained the status of Ijtehad. He spent fourteen years in Iraq attending the classes of the famous scholars of the holy cities of Najaf and Karbala.
791 solar years ago, on this day in 1229 AD, Ogedei Khan was proclaimed the second Khaqaan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire in Kodoe Aral, Mongolia, following the death of his father, the bloodthirsty Buddhist tyrant Genghis Khan.
699 solar years ago, on this day in 1321 AD, Italian poet, Dante Alighieri, known as the ‘Father of Italian Language’, died at the age of 56, and was buried in Ravenna.
583 solar years ago, on this day in 1437 AD, the Battle of Tangier resulted in a crushing defeat for the Portuguese invasion force led by Prince Henry the Navigator, Duke of Viseu at the hands of Moroccan army led by the Marinid vizier, Abu Zakariya Yahya al-Wattasi of Fez.
446 solar years ago, on this day in 1574 AD, the Ottoman fleet led by Ulugh Ali Raeis liberated Tunis from Spanish occupation after decisively defeating the combined naval forces of Spain, Portugal, France, and the papal states of Italy.
422 solar years ago, on this day in 1598 AD, Philip II of Spain died at the age of 71 after a 42-year reign, during which he was constantly embroiled in naval battles with the Ottoman Turks, who inflicted a number of defeats upon him except for the Battle of Lepanto which he won in 1571 and briefly occupied Tunis.
135 solar years ago, on this day in 1885 AD, Portuguese author, Aquilino Ribeiro, was born. Following the completion of his studies, he turned into a political activist and was imprisoned for a while. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in the year 1961. He died in 1963.
120 solar years ago, on this day in 1900 AD, Filipino fighters defeated the invading US army in the Battle of Pulang Lupa, during the US-Spanish War.
110 solar years ago, on this day in 1910 AD, the gnostic, Mirza Jahangir Khan Qashqai, passed away at the age of 83. Born among Qashqai nomads in central Iran, he became a prominent Islamic scholar, and groomed numerous students in the seminary of Isfahan, including Ayatollah Seyyed Hassan Modarres, and Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hussain Boroujerdi, during his 50-year teaching career.
88 lunar years ago, on this day in 1354 AH, the Urdu poet and playwright, Agha Mohammad Shah, known as "Hashr Kashmiri”, passed away in India at the age of 60.
72 solar years ago, on this day in 1948 AD, invasion of the Muslim kingdom of Haiderabad-Deccan by the Indian Army started a day after the death of the Founder of Pakistani, Mohammad Ali Jinnah. The invasion code-named "Operation Polo” was ordered by hardline Deputy Premier, Vallabhbhai Patel, to forcibly annex Deccan to India, despite the fact that following the British withdrawal from the Subcontinent in August 1947 and the birth of India and Pakistan, the landlocked kingdom, which was the size of France, had chosen to remain independent, and had even sent a representative to the UN for membership. Britain also betrayed the ruler, Osman Ali Khan Nizam ol-Mulk Asef Jah VII, conveniently forgetting the tens of millions of pound-sterling given by him as aid during the First and Second World Wars, as well as the pacts and treaties with his ancestors at the start of colonial rule. The Indian army invaded from four points and after several days of resistance, sensing the situation hopeless, the ruler negotiated surrender to avoid any further bloodshed of Muslims, thereby ending 224 glorious years of the rule of his dynasty founded by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb’s general of Central Asian Persian stock, Qamar od-Din Khan Nizam ol-Mulk Asef Jah. Some 200,000 mostly Muslim civilians were slaughtered by the Indian army during "Operation Polo” which was so named because of the large number of polo grounds in Haiderabad-Deccan – 17 in all.
52 solar years ago, on this day in 1968 AD, Ayatollah Sheikh Abdul-Karim Zanjani passed away in holy Najaf, Iraq, at the age of 83. An expert in philosophy, jurisprudence, mathematics, theology, and exegesis of the holy Qur’an, the works he authored include: "al-Wahi wa’l-Ilham”, "Dhakhirat-as-Salehin” and "Wasilat-an-Najat”.
42 solar years ago, on this day in 1978 AD, the people of Tehran held a massive demonstration to commemorate the traditional 7th day of the martyrdom of fellow citizens brutally gunned down by the Shah’s forces on September 7. A large number of people moved toward Behesht-e Zahra Cemetery to pay respects at the graves of martyrs. The Shah’s regime intended to block the path, but faced with large number of people chanting revolutionary slogans, backed off.
27 solar years ago, on this day in 1993 AD, Yasser Arafat betrayed the Palestinian cause by signing an accord with Zionist premier, Yitzhak Rabin, to accept the illegal existence of the Israel in return for recognition of his Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). The Zionist entity, after gaining several concessions from Arafat, made the false promise of granting statehood to the Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, but has never kept its words till this day.
21 solar years ago, on this day in 1999 AD, prominent Iranian researcher and historian, Morteza Ravandi, passed away at the age of 86.