Today is Saturday; 15th of the Iranian month of Shahrivar 1399 solar hijri; corresponding to 16th of the Islamic month of Muharram 1442 lunar hijri; and September 5, 2020 of the Christian Gregorian Calendar.
1430 solar years ago, on this day in 590, Hormizd IV, the 21st Sassanid Emperor of Iran-Iraq-Afghanistan, was deposed, blinded and killed at the age of 50 after a reign of 11 years by Vistahm and Vinduyih, the maternal uncles of his son and successor, Khosrow II Pervez.
1321 solar years ago, on this day in 699 AD, the Iranian Sunni Muslim Jurisprudent, Noman Ibn Sabet Ibn Zuṭa Ibn Marzuban, known as Abu Hanifa, was born in Kufa in a family of Zoroastrian origin from Kabul. He learned the holy Qur’an and hadith, and after only two years of study under Imam Ja’far Sadeq (AS), the 6th Infallible Heir of Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), he started his own jurisprudential school, known as Hanafi. Contrary to the definition of Ijtihad, based on the holy Qur’an and the genuine hadith of the Prophet, he resorted to "qiyas” or analogy regarding legal issues, despite warnings from Imam Sadeq (AS) that the first one to indulge in "qiyas” was Iblis (Satan). He died in Baghdad at the age of 68.
354 solar years ago, on this day in 1666 AD, the Great Fire of London, which began on September 2 finally ended. Ten thousand buildings including St Paul’s Cathedral were destroyed.
248 solar years ago, on this day in 1772 AD, Fath-Ali Shah, the second king of the Qajarid Dynasty of Iran, was born. Son of Hussain Qoli Khan, the brother of the founder of the dynasty, Agha Mohammad Khan, he was governor of Fars and succeeded his childless uncle on his assassination in 1797. Much of his 37-year long reign that saw the gradual loss of vast areas of Iran in the Caucasus, Khorasan, Sistan-Baluchestan, Central Asia and the Persian Gulf, was marked by the resurgence of Persian arts and painting, as well as a deeply elaborate court culture.
227 solar years ago, on this day in 1793 AD, the Reign of Terror began during the French Revolution as the National Convention instituted harsh measures to repress counter-revolutionary activities.
202 solar years ago, on this day in 1818 AD, the ministry of foreign affairs was established for the first time in Iran, with Mirza Abu’l-Hassan Khan Shirazi as foreign minister, operating under the country’s prime minister, who in turn was responsible to the Qajarid Shah. It was the first ministry in Iran, and before that the Department of External Affairs used to handle Iran’s foreign relations. Gradually other ministries were established to take care of the different areas of work entrusted to the prime minister, as bureaucracy grew.
182 lunar years ago, on this day in 1260 AH, Amir Abdul-Qader of Algeria was finally detained after fifteen years of struggle against the French occupiers. One of the reasons behind his failure was the treason of the pro-French rulers of Morocco who did not allow him to use the border areas for the independence struggle. Incarcerated in a French jail for nine years, he was later released on condition of not returning to Algeria. He died in 1883 in Damascus, Syria.
172 solar years ago, on this day in 1848 AD, Mohammad Shah Qajar, the 3rd ruler of the Qajarid Dynasty of Iran, died at the age of 40, after a reign of 14 years, and was succeeded by his 16-year old son, Nasser od-Din Shah, with the famous reformist prime minster, Mirza Taqi Khan Amir Kabir as regent. Son of the famous crown prince, Abbas Mirza, who predeceased Fath Ali Shah, he succeeded his grandfather, and twice tried to unsuccessfully liberate Herat, the "Pearl of Khorasan” from Afghan occupation, but was thwarted by the British, who sent naval forces to the Persian Gulf to occupy Khark island and threaten Bushehr. It was during his rule that the symbol of "Shir-va-Khorshid” (Lion and Sun) against a red, white, and green background became the flag of Iran.
163 solar years ago, on this day in 1857 AD, the French philosopher and mathematician, August Comte, died at the age of 65. Considered Founder of Modern Sociology, he also presented significant views in mathematics, philosophy, physics, and astronomy.
143 solar years ago, on this day in 1877 AD, four months after his peaceful surrender to end the warfare between the Amerindian natives and the US regime, Oglala Sioux chief ‘Crazy Horse’ was treacherously bayoneted to death by a white soldier at Fort Robinson in Nebraska, at the age of 37.
133 solar years ago, on this day in 1887 AD, the Yellow River floods in China took place. This major flooding lasted more than a month, claiming the life of nearly 900,000 people. Hundreds of villages and farmlands were destroyed.
114 solar years ago, on this day in 1905 AD, the Russo-Japanese War ended after a year and a half with signing of the Portsmouth Peace Treaty in New Hampshire, US, mediated by US President Theodore Roosevelt.
63 solar years ago, on this day in 1957 AD, Iranian painter, sculptor, and journalist, Ali Divandari, was born in Sabzevar in Khorasan Province. He is an excellent cartoonist, painter, graphic designer, sculptor and journalist. His works have been published in many international newspapers and magazines and have been exhibited in over than 34 countries
51 solar years ago, on this day in 1969 AD, of the 22 cowardly US soldiers involved in sadistic savagery at My Lai village in Vietnam, only William Calley was charged with six specifications of premeditated murder for the cold-blooded killing of 109 Vietnamese men, women and children, including infants, on 16th March 1968. Some of the bodies were later found to be mutilated and many women raped prior to the killings. The massacre prompted global outrage when it became public knowledge in 1969. It also increased domestic opposition to the US involvement in the Vietnam War. Three US servicemen who had tried to halt the massacre and protect the wounded were denounced by several US Congressmen as traitors in an attempt to cover up the massacre. They received hate mail and death threats. The three were later widely praised and decorated by the army for their heroic actions. As for the chief culprit William Calley, he was originally given a life sentence, but only served three and a half years under house arrest before being released, which shows the highly flawed nature of justice in the US.
42 solar years ago, on this day in 1978 AD, with the progress of struggles of the Iranian people against Shah’s despotic regime, huge demonstrations were held nationwide. The regime scared of the people’s anger banned public protests. The Father of the Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini (RA) issued a fatwa from his exile in the holy city of Najaf in Iraq, calling on the Iranian people to continue their struggles until the downfall of the oppressive regime, and terming the holding of demonstrations for attainment of Islamic goals as "a form of worship.”
38 solar years ago, on this day in 1982 AD, a massive bomb explosion was triggered by MKO terrorists at peak hours in the busy Nasser Khosrow Street of central Tehran, resulting in the martyrdom of scores of innocent men, women, and children, and injury to hundreds of others. The explosion left a huge crater in the street and was heard almost all over Tehran. It was designed to demoralize the people, following a string of defeats suffered by the invading Ba’thist army at the battlefronts of the war imposed by the US through its agent, Saddam, who was openly allied with the MKO terrorists. Of the 17,000 Iranian citizens martyred by the terrorists, the MKO have claimed responsibility for killing 12,000 of them.
18 solar years ago, on this day in 2002, the Islamic Republic of Iran successfully test fired the solid fuel surface-to-surface "Fateh 110 A” ballistic missile which has a range of around 500 km, as part of the country’s self-sufficiency drive in the field of defence, in order to deter any would-be-aggressor.
17 solar years ago, on this day in 2003 AD, Iranian mountaineer, Mohammad Oraz, died in Islamabad, Pakistan, at the age of 34 during an attempt to climb Mount Gasherbrum in the Himalayas.
15 solar years ago, on this day in 2005 AD, the Islamic Republic of Iran offered to send the US 20 million barrels of crude oil to help it overcome the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, as part of its Islamic and humanitarian policy of assisting the afflicted people of even a hostile state that imposed illegal sanctions upon it.